Haliaeetus Albicilla and yellow bill as in Bald Eagle, but head and neck pale buff rather than pure white, contrasting much less with rest of plumage. tail wedge shaped. Female averages larger. Juvenile blackish brown, with tail, head, bill and iris all dark, whitish markings on axillaries. gradually attains adult plumage over 5-6 years, but tail not wite until 8th year, bill yellow after 4-5 years.

White-Tailed Eagle is breeding in south-western Greenland, Iceland and in a large part of Eurasia, from Turkey, Germany and Norway to northern China and eastern Siberia. During last century and the first half of this century the species has declined dramatically and has disappeared from many regions. Since 1970 its western populations have increased, and have been able to become established again in several regions. In Central Europe and Greece the decrease is still going on, however. The population of the European Union was of 149-161 breeding pairs, while the total European population can be estimated at 3500 pairs. This species has been suffering and is still suffering in some regions from persecution, acute poisoning, nest destruction and wetland reclamation.
The White-tailed Eagle is a long-lived, slow-reproducing raptor, compensating for a low annual offspring production by high adult survival. This makes the species most sensitive to a decrease in adult survival, compared with a decrease in juvenile survival or a temporary decrease in productivity. A reduction in productivity over many years, however, will threaten the population, as demonstrated by the critical situation in the Baltic region from the 1960s until the mid-1980s as a result of contamination with pollutants. Despite the dangers, a juvenile reaching adulthood has a high chance of survival, birds live to over 35 years old.

It is closely associated with wetlands, principally large lakes and rivers, from the lowlands to 5,000 m. It generally nests in trees near water and in upland areas on cliffs. Within its wide range the White-tailed Eagle breeds in quite different habitats, from the treeless marine fjords in Greenland and the outer coast of Norway to the brackish, forested coasts of the Baltic, and from the northern taiga lakes and rivers of Fennoscandia and Russia to the alluvial forests and floodplains in central and southern Europe. As always, a sufficient prey base is crucial for reproduction. Shallow waters with high production are essential in most areas. In forested areas nests are exclusively built in trees, and mature tree stands are needed for nesting. Being sensitive to disturbance at the nest, the Sea Eagle requires breeding sites with low human activity. The nearest acceptable distance to potential sources of disturbance varies strongly between areas, being larger in open habitats with exposed nests than in more secluded sites. A gradual relaxation in sensitivity to human disturbance has been observed recently in some areas, probably as a result of less persecution.
The species is very faithful to its breeding sites, with the same sites being occupied by generation after generation of eagles. This long continuity places special concern and attention to the long-term conservation of breeding areas, especially in our time of rapid change. When nesting in trees this big eagle builds huge nests which are added to year by year, and therefore needs strong nest-trees; such trees are usually much older than the rotation period in modern forestry

First reproduction usually from age 5 (6th calendar year), sometimes as early as 3 or as late as 7+. Territorial pairs are highly faithful, generally occupying the same territory throughout life, and territories tend to be occupied by succeeding generations of eagles. Several territories have been occupied by Sea Eagles for a century or more. As populations increased again in recent years, old vacant territories were the first to be re-occupied by new eagles, after a pause of 20 – 40 years. The nests are built in trees or on cliff ledges, or on the ground as locally in Greenland, Iceland, Norway and rarely elsewhere. Nesting also occurs rarely on pylons, towers. In forested areas, tree-nesting is preferred and mature trees are clearly favored to support the huge nests. The age of nest-trees are usually well above the rotation period in forestry (as long as such trees are available).
In the taiga and sub-boreal forest region most nests are in pine Pinus silvestris, whereas in Central and Southern Europe nests are commonly found also in deciduous trees. Nests are generally placed in the top third of the tree. Normally, two or more alternate nests are found in a breeding territory. Utilizing a mainly stable prey base, the breeding frequency is high (c90% in Swedish populations. The time of egg-laying varies with latitude and climate, starting in late January in southern Europe, mid-February in the Baltic Sea and late March or early April in the northern more continental areas. Most pairs in a population usually lay within a period of 3 – 4 weeks. Clutch size 1-3 (very rarely 4), mean 2.1 but lower in some northern populations. Incubation period 35 – 38 days, nestling period 70-86 days. Nestlings grow from c80 – 95 g at hatch to 4-6 kg at fledging, the steepest gain in weight occurring during the first 5 weeks of life. Fledged young are usually dependent on the parents for food for 1 -2 months and disperse from the territory c2 – 3 months after fledging. Annual breeding success (pairs rearing young) in healthy populations is usually c60-80% and brood size 1.6 – 1.8.

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