Petronia Petronia  is bulky, long-winged, square-tailed sparrow, with heavy bill on rather large head (apparent size of head due partly to its linear patterning). Differs from other west Palearctic Petronia in larger size and strongly striped, streaked, and spotted greyish-brown plumage; combination of dark lateral crown stripes and white spots on tail-tip diagnostic.

Rock Sparrowis a widespread resident across much of southern Europe, which accounts for less than a quarter of its global range. Its European breeding population is very large ( 1,700,000 pairs), and was stable between 1970-1990. Although there were declines in a few countries during 1990-2000, the key population in Turkey was stable (the trend of the other sizeable population, in Spain, was unknown), and the species probably remained stable overall.

Generally frequents rather bare treeless terrain with scanty herbaceous vegetation, ranging from flat desert steppe to rocky slopes or outcrops, screes, stony patches, ravines, cliffs, crags, and clay or earth precipices. In some regions favours less severe environments, such as alpine meadows, grassy or shrubby riversides, vineyards, olive groves, stone walls, ruined castles and other structures on hilltops, and even human settlements, where it may come into competition with House Sparrow or Spanish Sparrow.

In France egg laying from end of April to August, peak June-July when second clutches are generally laid. In Spain, the eggs are laid late April to early June. Canary Islands, the eggs laid mostly in May, but eggs recorded late March and nestlings early August. The nest is a hole or cavity in rocks, earth bank, tree, building or other structure, commonly in old, or sometimes usurped hole of other species, particularly bee-eaters but also nuthatches, swallows and martins. Also in old rodent burrow. Nest is largish untidy structure, very like that of House Sparrow; sometimes domed. Foundation principally of grass or straw, occasionally reduced to small pad, lined with feathers, hair, wool, string, cloth, paper, stalks of herbs or rootlets. Clutch varies from 4-7(-8) and are incubated for 11-14 days, young fledge after 16-21 days.

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