Puffinus yelkouan  is 36cm. Medium-sized shearwater with blackish-brown upperparts contrasting sharply with almost entirely white underparts and underwings. Underwings only dark on tips, tailing edge and diagonal band across secondary coverts. Some brown on flanks, axillaries, undertail and underwing coverts. Feet are proportionally larger and extend slightly beyond tail, thus appearing longer-tailed at long range. Similar ssp. Similar to P.puffinus but with browner upperparts, deeper-chested appearance, somewhat larger more attunuated body and longer wings. Flight and jizz more similar to P.mauretanicus which darkest individuals may closely resemble. Voice Similar to P.puffinus; a raucous cacophony of cackles and howls but more drawling and with drawn-out falsetto notes.

Mediterranean Shearwateris endemic to the Mediterranean basin, but its precise distribution is not well known and numbers are disputed. It is known to breed in Spain (Balearic Islands) (100-150 pairs), France (395-536 pairs), Italy (7,000-14,000 pairs), Malta (1,400-1,560 pairs), Greece (1,000-2,000 pairs), Bulgaria (0-10 pairs), Albania (1-10 pairs), Croatia (250-300 pairs), Turkey (1,000-30,000 pairs) and Algeria (8-10 pairs)1, giving a global estimate of 10,815-53,574 pairs. Further breeding grounds may exist off the coasts of Turkey and Tunisia, where thousands of birds congregate during the breeding season. The populations in Italy, Greece, Albania and Croatia are thought to be stable, but the Maltese colonies are decreasing. The few known colonies are small, and all harbour populations of introduced rats and/or cats, with several colonies having become extinct over the last 50 years. Most worryingly, breeding success at many colonies appears to be extremely low, which suggests significant future declines are likely. The species is consequently classified as Near Threatened, but more research is needed into its population size, trends and threats.

Mostly pelagic, breed on rocky cliffs providing burwwos or cervices for nestbuilding.

The species visit land for breeding from September to late June. Eggs are laid from the beginning of March and the last chicks do not fledge until July. Reproductive success has been measured in three accessible colonies. Results vary from 46 to 77,7 % (the last one after a rat cont rol campaign), with an average of 66,8 % by pair. Females lay a single egg at a nest site (a burrow, a crevice or directly on bare ground) during February-March, and incubation lasts ca. 50 days. Chick rearing period extends for ca. 65-70 days.

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