Buteo Buteo is extremely variable. Generally dark brown above and on most of underbody and underwing coverts, from below , wingtip and trailing edge of wing dark, flight-feathers barred, pale area in outer primaries. Extensive geographical variation, partly confounded by individual variation. Races separated on size coloration and plumage pattern. Race vulpinus normally smaller, often with rusty underbody underwing coverts and upperside of tail, generally separable from B. rufinus on darker head and faintly barred tail, race menestriesi rather similar to vulpinus, but larger.

Japanese Buzzard  is a widespread breeder across most of Europe, which accounts for less than half of its global breeding range. Its European breeding population is large (710,000 pairs), and increased between 1970-1990. Although there were declines in a few countries during 1990-2000, key populations in Russia, Germany, Turkey and France were stable, and the species was stable or increased across most of the rest of Europe.

Variable, but always with some degree of tree cover. Prefers edges of woods and areas where cultivation, meadows, pastures or moors alternate with coniferous or deciduous woods, or least clumps of trees. In winter open fields, steppe or wetlands. Mainly flat terrain or gentle slopes at low or moderate altitudes.

Eggs laid from march to may. Nests in large trees, fairly close to edge of wood. Nest is bulky platform of sticks and twigs, lined with greenery. Built in fork or on branch near trunk. 2-4 eggs, incubation 35-38 days by female, but most prey caught by male. Chicks have white or brownish grey first and second down. This species is sexual mature at 3 years old.

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