Golden eagle, with gliding or soaring flight is named for its golden- brown plumage, with head and nape feathers a slightly lighter, gold color. Measuring 70-84 cm in length, the golden eagle has a wingspan of 2 m and weighs 3.2-6.4 kg. Adults have a heavy dark tipped bill. The immature golden in flight can be distinguished from the immature bald eagle by the presence of distinct white patches on the underside of the wing and by a broad white tail with dark band. The most notable field mark is the presence of feathers on the legs of golden eagles all the way down to the toes.

Aquila Chrysaetos inhabits a major part of Eurasia, northern Africa and North America. In Europe it has inhabited nearly the whole continent, but in many regions it has disappeared following persecution and in-depth changes in land use practices. In the Iberian Peninsula and Greece this regression is still in progress. In Scotland its population seems to be quite stable. In the Alps a definite increase has been noticed since about 20 years. The total population of the European Union was estimated at 2500 breeding pairs in 1995. the Golden Eagle is now restricted to the higher central Apennines regions of Italy (the regional capital of Abruzzo is named after the Latin/Italian word for eagle, L’Aquila), and the Alps. In Britain, there are about 420 pairs left in the Scottish highlands, and between 1969 and 2004 they bred in the English Lake District. In North America the situation is not as dramatic, but there has still been a noticeable decline. Efforts are being made to re-introduce the species in Glenveagh National Park, County Donegal, Ireland, where they had been extinct since the early 20th Century. Forty-six birds have been released into the wild from 2001 to 2006, with at least three known female fatalities since then. It is intended to release a total of sixty birds, to ensure a viable population.

Typically the species occupies mountain landscapes where tree cover is sparse or fragmented. Such lowland birds are exclusively tree-nesting, but elsewhere nests are predominantly on cliffs. They often returning annually to the same nest. Though nesting territories may be occupied yearly, there are generally several nest sites in the area that are used on different years. These nests may be over 0.5 miles apart. Alternate nests range from 1 to 11 per territory.

Nests are constructed of large twigs or roots and can be lined with moss, bark, fur or other soft material. The nest may become huge, as much as 8 to 10 feet across and 3 to 4 feet deep. Eggs are laid between February and May (or May to June in the Arctic) commonly two per nest, although up to four eggs could be laid in one clutch. Incubation time is 43 to 45 days. Usually, the female does most of the incubating. The first born eaglet is aggressive against the weaker younger sibling and attacks it, does not let it feed, until the younger chick dies. This phenomenon is called kainism.
The young will fledge when 72 to 84 days old, and depend upon their parents for another 3 months. Then the young will either migrate or move out of the parents’ territory but overwinter in their natal area.In winter, large groups of Golden Eagles may flock together.

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