Common Redshank  ashy brown upperparts, head and breast, streaked and spotted with black and dark brown. White secondaries conspicuous in flight. Differs from non-breeding T. erythropus by shorter, orange-red legs, shorter bill, indistinct supercilium and redder bill. Female often has paler upperparts than male, at least in race totanus. Non-breeding adult has gteyer upperparts, without streaks or spots, but some narrow white fringes, underparts paler, breast finely streaked. Races generally vary only in small details of plumage and size, robusta and ussuriensis more cinnamon.

Tringa totanus is a widespread breeder across much of Europe, which constitutes >50% of its global breeding range. Its European breeding population is large (>280,000 pairs), but underwent a moderate decline between 1970-1990. Although several populations—notably sizeable ones in Russia and Norway—were stable or increased during 1990-2000, the species continued to decline across much of its European range, and underwent a moderate decline (>10%) overall. Consequently, it is evaluated as Declining.

This wader is breeding in temperate, boreal and steppe regions of Eurasia, from the Iberian Peninsula to northern Norway and from the British Isles to China. The birds of southern Europe are largely sedentary. Those of the north are wintering from the North Sea to northern and north-western Africa, and those of Iceland winter mainly in the British Isles. Those of the British Isles are largely sedentary but some individuals disperse between Denmark and Portugal. In Greece birds from Eastern Europe are seen on their migration to north-eastern Africa. The total European population is estimated at 346000 breeding pairs, Russia not included.

Egg laying from April to June. Monogamous pair bond. Moderate degree of natal pilopatry (consectutive generations breed in the area) in experienced and successful breeders, of site faithfulness and mate fidelity. Breeds solitary or in loose colonies. Nest typically at base of tall clump of grass, with leaves covering overhead. 4 eggs are laid, incubation 24 days, by both sexes. Chick has creamy or greyish buff upperparts with black-brown lines, buff suffused breast and whitish underparts. Both parents initially tend young, but later on often only male. Age of first breeding 1-2 years.

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