Glareola Pratincola above brown, tinged olive, with white rump. Long wingtipes and deeply forked tail black. Throat ochre yellow, bordered narrowly with black. Breast brown shading to white belly. Underwing coverts and axillaries deep rich chestnut, narrow but red with black tip, legs blackish. Races separated on small color differences, African birds smaller and darker, not distinguishable in the field.

Collared Pratincoleis a widespread but patchily distributed summer visitor to southern Europe, which accounts for less than a quarter of its global breeding range. Its European breeding population is relatively small (18,000 pairs), and underwent a large decline between 1970-1990. Although trends were stable in several countries across its European range during 1990-2000, key populations in Spain and Turkey declined, and the species underwent a moderate decline (10%) overall.
This pratincole inhabits a major part of Africa and south-western Eurasia, from the Iberian Peninsula to eastern Kazakhstan. European birds winter in Africa. The total population of the European Union is estimated at 5000 breeding pairs, but it is undergoing a dramatic decline since 1970. The reason for this is habitat loss through intensification of agriculture

Flat, arid and open areas, fields, steppe plains in Eurasia, usually near water. In Africa open ground, often recently burned, overgrazed grassland, ploughed fields, alkaline flats or sandflats, usually near water, especially along larger rivers and estuaries.

Colonial nester in small groups of 20, up to 100 pairs, on dry mudflats or sandflats, sometimes forms mixed colonies with Glareola nordmanni. Nest is usually a shallow scrape or natural depression in ground, such as a hoofprint. Females lay 3 eggs in the species’ European and Asian breeding grounds, but only two in African habitats, incubation 18 days by both sexes. Chick mottled above with charcoal and black, below white. Fed by both parents by regurgitation or presentation of food in bill tip. First breeding at one year old.

A summer visitor to west Palearctic, wintering in Africa. Principal winter range believed to lie along southern edge of Sahara from Sénégal to Ethiopia, where not readily separable from local breeding populations. Autumn migration in Mediterranean basin and Middle East mainly late August to October, and relative paucity of passage observations indicates unbroken flights into Africa. Palearctic migrants present in Sudan October-March. Return movement begins late March or April, with arrivals in European breeding quarters mainly April to mid-May.

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